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Fertility rate: 'Jaw-dropping' global crash in children being born In Homogenous Populations.

Chinese dynastic records from as early as 192 C.E. reference a kingdom of Lin-yi, which meant the “land of Black men.” The kingdom of Lin-yi was known as Champa in Sanskrit documents. The people of Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia... The Chams of modern Vietnam and Cambodia are the major remnants of this former kingdom. They speak Chamic languages, a subfamily of Malayo-Polynesian closely related to the Malayic and Bali–Sasak languages that is spoken throughout maritime Southeast Asia. The Sa Huỳnh culture was a late prehistoric metal age society on the central coast of Viet Nam. In 1909, urns containing cremated remains and grave goods were discovered at Thanh Duc, near Sa Huỳnh, a coastal village located south of Da Nang. Since then, many more burials have been found, from Huế to the Đồng Nai river delta. The jar burials contain bronze mirrors, coins, bells, bracelets, axes and spearheads, iron spearheads, knives and sickles, and beads made of gold, glass, carnelian, agate and nephrite. Radiocarbon dating of the Sa Huỳnh culture remains range from 400 BC to the first or second century AD. The Sa Huỳnh exchanged items along maritime trade routes with Taiwan and the Philippines. "At present, the consensus of all evidence points to a relatively early in comparison to European exploration intrusive settlement of this region by sea from Borneo, a move which stimulated the rise of Sa Huỳnh, and then the development of the Cham states. The Malay trading networks during the first millennium triggered one of the earliest proto-globalisation processes, bringing Southeast Asian populations to Madagascar and other parts of East Africa. Loss of this diversity has made many modern populations in the region decline.

What is homogenous? What does homogenous mean? The word homogenous has been derived from two Greek words that are “homo”, which means the same and “Genous”, which means kind. Therefore, the homogeneous meaning refers to those considered as all same, similar, or present in the same proportion. The offspring produced via asexual reproduction are homogenous as they are identical to each other, including their parents. But on the other side, there are also many populations that may look homogenous, but they are not such as sub-Saharan African populations. Scientists understand through research that populations that are too homogenous leads to diminished biodiversity, and because of that, the chances of their early extinction due to environmental changes are high.

In ecosystems, homogenous populations have less biodiversity and lower species richness. Species richness, the count, or total number, of unique species within a given biological community, ecosystem, biome, or other defined area. Genetic variation is fundamental to population fitness and adaptation to environmental change. Genetic diversity among and within populations of all humans is necessary for people to survive and thrive in a changing world. Over the past three years, commitments for conserving genetic diversity have become more ambitious and specific under the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) draft post-2020 global biodiversity framework (GBF).Genetic variation is also a component of the planetary boundaries that humanity must operate within for our own survival (Mace et al., 2014).

Overall, 37% of the descendants from exogamous couples in inner Asia are closely inbred. This suggests that in Inner Asia, geographical exogamy is neither efficient in increasing genetic diversity nor in avoiding inbreeding, which might be due to kinship.

Presently, half the countries worldwide exhibit a fertility rate below replacement level. Not including the effects of climate migration, most Asian and European countries are predicted to have an indigenous population decline of 50% by 2070, causing demographic changes with profound societal implications. Policies that optimize chances to have a child when desired increase fertility rates and are gaining interest as a family-building method. Increasingly, countries have implemented child-friendly policies (mainly financial incentives in addition to public funding of fertility treatment in a limited number of countries) to mitigate decreasing national populations.

However, the extent of public spending on child benefits varies greatly from country to country. To our knowledge, this International Federation of Fertility Societies (IFFS) consensus document represents the first attempt to describe major disparities in access to fertility care in the context of the global trend of decreasing growth in the world population.

A lack of genetic diversity has been implicated in phenotypic abnormalities like lack of melanin and inactive pineal glands that control melanocyte production, fertility issues (e.g., cryptorchidism, poor sperm quality), reduced neonatal survival, heart defects, and susceptibility to disease, and may undermine the ability to adapt to changing climate. The effects of inbreeding to maintain homogeneity traits that do not promote survival of the species in extreme temperature event habitats may be exacerbated by other issues such as environmental catastrophe, reaching thresholds past which extinction probability increases dramatically.


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