America’s opioid epidemic has dominated the news media in recent years, as drug overdose
deaths have escalated, decimating lives and families. And while climate change may not be top of mind in discussions about how to effectively deal with this crisis, it’s a factor that shouldn’t be ignored. Global warming spawns extreme weather, which begets destruction and despair, a dangerous scenario for people looking for a way to numb their emotional pain.
Scientists who have been studying opioid deaths across the country believe that socioeconomic factors and natural disasters should become part of any national conversation about how to tackle America’s wave of opioid deaths. In recent years, global warming has fueled a growing number of turbulent weather events that have taken a grim toll on the human psyche.
By The Recovery Village Editor Rob Alston Medically Reviewed By Eric Patterson, LPC Updated on 09/01/22 Opioid use disorders have become increasingly common in recent years, often with devastating consequences. Opioid-related overdose deaths have skyrocketed, and illegal use of the opioid heroin has seen a major resurgence. Opioid addiction can be very challenging to overcome, especially for people who try to quit without professional help. Opioids have a profound effect on brain chemistry, and changes can persist for months or even years after someone has quit taking opioids. Table of Contents The Opioid Crisis
The Opioid Crisis In the U.S., chronic pain is one of the most common reasons why people see their doctors. Opioids like morphine have long been used as powerful pain-killers, but morphine is also notoriously addictive. Consequently, doctors are hesitant to write prescriptions for morphine. As new semi-synthetic and synthetic opioids were developed and marketed, pharmaceutical companies emphasized that their opioids were not addictive. This gave medical care providers a new way to help people manage chronic pain. Unfortunately, the new generation of opioids is at least as addictive as morphine, and more than two million Americans are currently struggling with an opioid use disorder. What are Opioids? Opioids are a large class of drugs that are used medicinally and recreationally. Morphine was one of the earliest types of opioid that was widely used, and since the discovery of morphine, several other types of opioids have been created. Opioids exert their effects by hijacking normal brain signaling pathways that regulate pain and pleasure. This is why opioids are so good at killing pain, and it’s also why they are so addictive. When people abuse opioids recreationally, they experience intense euphoria that reinforces addiction. Need Help? Call us about your addiction, detox needs, or questions regarding treatment plans we offer so that we can get you the help you need. For questions regarding the medicine you are currently taking, please contact your primary doctor. Call Now Signs & Symptoms of Opioid Use Opioid use disorders are usually associated with some hallmark signs and symptoms that can help identify whether you or someone you love is at risk. Physical signs of opioid use:
Cold, clammy skin
Poor motor coordination
Slow heart rate
Stupor or unconsciousness
Psychological symptoms of opioid use:
Rapid mood swings
Physical symptoms of opioid use:
Lack of coordination
Sleeping too much
Behavioral signs of an addiction:
Preoccupation with getting and using opioids
Missing work or school
Evasiveness or unusual secrecy
Inability to concentrate
Failure to meet normal responsibilities
Loss of interest in friends or hobbies
Inability to quit taking opioids or reduce the dose
In addition, people with opioid use disorders often face social consequences, including: financial troubles, legal troubles and job loss. Side Effects of Opioid Use Side effects are unintended consequences that occur when you take a drug. Opioid use disorders have been linked to serious side effects, some of which can have long-term health consequences. Side effects may include:
Altered immune system function
Increased sensitivity to pain
Reduced motor coordination
Withdrawal & Detox Process Different types of opioids are associated with somewhat different withdrawal and detox processes, but several generalizations can be made. The opioids that are associated with the most challenging withdrawal process are highly potent opioids with short half-lives (e.g. fentanyl, heroin, oxycodone). When someone uses these drugs, they experience a rapid high that is short-lived, which increases the risk of developing an addiction. Opioid withdrawal is generally not associated with significant health risks, but withdrawal symptoms can be profoundly uncomfortable and debilitating. The risk for relapse is high in the first days and weeks of recovery, especially among people who quit cold turkey and without professional help. Anyone who wants to quit taking opioids should make an appointment with an addiction specialist who is experienced with opioid withdrawal and recovery. Withdrawal Timeline Opioids are a large class of drugs, so withdrawal timelines vary somewhat depending on the specific opioid. Drugs that are metabolized quickly have a faster onset of withdrawal symptoms, but the duration is shorter than drugs that take longer to metabolize. Other factors that can influence the withdrawal timeline include the degree of dependence, age, and metabolism. Oxycodone and heroin are among the most common opioids of abuse, and they have similar withdrawal timelines. Approximately 8-12 hours after the last dose is taken, withdrawal symptoms will begin to set in. Symptom severity peaks between 36-72 hours after the last dose, and withdrawal ends within 7-10 days. Withdrawal Symptoms Most people will experience withdrawal symptoms within a few hours of their last dose. This is the detoxification and acute withdrawal period, during which time all of the opioids in your system are metabolized. Physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal:
Sweating and/or chills
Psychological symptoms of opioid withdrawal:
Dysphoria (a general sense of unease or dissatisfaction)
Anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure)
Treatment Options Anyone who wants to quit taking opioids is urged to make an appointment with an addiction specialist who can provide recommendations and referrals. Opioids are notoriously challenging to quit, and working with a rehab professional is the best way to successfully overcome an opioid use disorder. Quality rehab facilities offer a range of opioid addiction treatment options:
Medical detox: Medical detox is often the first step in opioid recovery. People in medical detox are supervised around-the-clock by medical professionals. When appropriate, medications that can ease withdrawal symptom severity can be provided.
Residential Rehab: Relapse rates in the first few weeks of recovery are high. Residential (or inpatient) rehab programs give clients a safe environment that protects them from triggers and temptation.
Outpatient Rehab: Many people with opioid use disorders transition from residential programs to outpatient care. Outpatient programs vary from all-day/every-day programs to weekly or bi-weekly therapy sessions.
Aftercare: Once rehab is over, many people continue to participate in aftercare programs. Aftercare can be a valuable way for people in recovery to meet like-minded people and participate in drug-free activities.
Dual Diagnosis: Mental health disorders are often overlooked in opioid use disorders. Quality treatment programs will evaluate their clients for dual diagnosis and tailor their treatment plan to address both the mental health and opioid use disorders.
Related Topic: Inpatient vs. Outpatient Rehab Medication-Assisted Treatment Medical detox and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) are not the same. The goal of medical detox is to successfully get someone through the initial period of detoxification and withdrawal, and medications like benzodiazepines might be provided if symptoms are severe. The goal of MAT is to help people manage long-term withdrawal symptoms that can persist for months or even years after someone quit taking opioids. MAT drugs are long-acting opioids that do not cause the euphoric high that opioids of abuse are known for. MAT drugs have similar chemical effects in the brain (thus preventing withdrawal), but they do not reinforce addiction. Common MAT Drugs Buprenorphine (brand name Subutex) Buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone) MethadoneBuprenorphine and methadone are both known as “opioid agonists,” meaning that they activate opioid receptors in the brain. When they are taken as prescribed, they are not associated with a risk for abuse. However, high doses can get people high, so there is some risk for abuse. Naloxone is an “opioid antagonist,” meaning that it actually blocks opioid receptors from interacting with opioids. When buprenorphine/naloxone is taken as prescribed, the naloxone is inactive and buprenorphine can prevent withdrawal symptoms from setting in. However, if buprenorphine/naloxone is injected into the bloodstream, the naloxone is activated and prevents buprenorphine from interacting with opioid receptors. FAQs Some frequently asked questions about opioids are addressed below. What’s the difference between opiates and opioids? Why are opioids so addictive? Which opiates are the most addictive? Are all opioids addictive? What drugs are considered opioids? What contributed to the opioid crisis?
Get Help Opioid use disorders can be challenging to overcome, especially without professional help. The Recovery Village Cherry Hill at Cooper provides comprehensive rehab programs that can help you achieve long-term recovery. Call Us Today Sources
Medical Disclaimer: The Recovery Village aims to improve the quality of life for people struggling with a substance use or mental health disorder with fact-based content about the nature of behavioral health conditions, treatment options and their related outcomes. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider.