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Why Did the US Named Counties and Forts After the Losers of The Civil War? How BIPOC Americans Are Changing the Narratives Impacting Tourism Through Global Climate Change! A Black Coral Review, Utilizing Precepts from Holding Visitors Accountable...Climate Change (Denise E. Konan, Makena Coffman, and Jian Zhang)

Most of the maroons who remained in the swamp left after the Civil War. The maroon communities in the Great Dismal Swamp were founded on persistence. The conditions in the swamp, whether that be the hot, humid weather, the deadly animals, or the bugs, made it a difficult place to live such knowledge is priceless in dealing with global climate change!.

One-third of Miami-Dade County is located in Everglades National Park. Soaring inflation and high hotel prices caused a drop in the number of U.S. travelers that visited Miami Dade County during 2023. Visitors to Florida's Dade County fell short of 2022' numbers, as a not even the slight post-pandemic rebound in international travelers could overcome a noticeable drop-off in domestic tourism. Meanwhile greenhouse gas that caused the wet bulb life threatening weather last year cut deeper in the social consciousness. (GHG) emissions can be mitigated through visitor taxes, energy policy, and industrial measures. This model provides greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) generated by residents, government, and five types of visitors in an applied general equilibrium model of Dade County Florida's economy that would offset losses.

What Dade County officials are not discussing is hoe racist Florida appears to the world where even white South Afrikaners question whether they should visit you know something is wrong. The US Government and The NAACP issued a warning to from multiple nations to avoid Florida because of their xenophobic and anti black sentiments reflected in the rhetoric of their political leadership, school councils, church leaders, and social media commenters. The Maroon settlements of the Seminoles in the great Dismal Swamp were ingenious havens of safety for decades. These resistant communities would choose areas that were difficult to reach. This allowed for many of these communities to live in peace and to live freely. Maroon communities would also use only natural resources they found in the Great Dismal Swamp to build structures, tools, and other resources. The numbers grew so large it was only through decades of wars that they won that their history still lives and their legend grows.

The Seminole Wars was a series of three wars between the United States and Escaped Africans and the Seminoles a word that means that took place in Florida between about 1816 and 1858. The Seminoles are an Afro-Native American nation which coalesced in northern Florida during the early 1700s, when the territory was still a Spanish colonial possession. Seminole comes from the Spanish word cimarron, which translates to “wild runaway as a majority of them were descended from escaped enslaved people and members of the Muscogee, also known as the Muskoka, Muscogee Creek or just Creek, and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands in the United States...” Similarly, the Spanish word maroon was applied to Africans who had escaped enslavement.

Tensions grew between the Seminoles and settlers in the newly independent United States in the early 1800s, mainly because many of the Creek did not believe in enslaving other human beings and thought the colonizers were immoral. Thousands of Creek newcomers (often called Red Stick Creeks) joined the indigenous communities in Florida after the Muscogee Creeks fought a civil war during the War of 1812.The United States formed an alliance with the traditional enemies of the Muscogee, the Choctaw and Cherokee Nations, as well as the Lower Creeks faction of the Muscogee. During the hostilities, the Red Sticks allied themselves to the British. Mainly because the US had stolen a great part of their territory from 1802 to 1804, western Georgia was split to form the Mississippi Territory, which later became the U.S. states of Alabama and Mississippi.

The Fort Mims massacre took place on August 30, 1813, at a fortified homestead site 35-40 miles north of Mobile, Alabama, during the Creek War. A large force of Creek Indians belonging to the Red Sticks faction, under the command of headmen known as Lamochattee or Red Eagle, stormed the fort and defeated the militia garrison trying to steal their land to expand slave plantations. The Red Sticks killed the Creek who had sided with the white settlers, and militia at Fort Mims. They took nearly 100 enslaved African Americans many of whom joined the tribe rather than return to slavery. The small fort consisted of a blockhouse and stockade surrounding the house and outbuildings of settler Samuel Mims.

A small party of Red Sticks killed two families of white settlers near Nashville and the American government demanded the Red Sticks involved be turned over. Instead, older chiefs had the Red Sticks executed, a decision which sent the Muscogee into civil war. The plantation owners were upset that enslaved people regularly fled from Georgia into Spanish Florida, prompting slaveowners to conduct slave raids across the border. Angry about the treaty, Black Seminoles led by Chiefs Micanope and Jumper fought Dade's detachment, killing Dade and all but three of his 108 men. Nationally, the attack was viewed as a massacre and resulted in the U.S. launching the Second Seminole War.

Francis Langhorne Dade (1792 – December 28, 1835) was a Brevet Major in the U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment, United States Army, during the Second Seminole War. Dade was killed in a battle with Seminole Indians that came to be known as the "Dade Massacre". The Seminole practice of giving refuge to escaped slaves added to the tension of the plantation owners who were losing profits they wanted the Army to wipe the Seminoles out but the fierce warriors ruled the swamplands and prompted union soldiers like Andrew Jackson to focus on killing women and children and using ambush tactics whenever they could on elderly tribesmen when the younger warriors were away hunting.

Dade who was a slaveowner from Virginia could not imagine that the Seminoles who he saw as primarily an army of black escaped slaves could defeat his trained white soldiers. On December 28, 1835, a column of 107 officers and men under the command of Brevet Major Francis Langhorne Dade was enroute from Fort Brooke on Tampa Bay to reinforce the garrison at Fort King in present day Ocala. About 50 miles short of their destination, they were attacked by 180 Seminole warriors in a pine forest in present day Bushnell. All the soldiers were killed except for three! The Seminoles lost six warriors.

"The narrative that should be put forth in regions like Dade County is not about the so-called heroic slaveholders but about the fierce protectors of the land and freedom and morality the heroic Seminole people. Early work on tourism and climate change focused on how changing climate could lead to changing tourist destinations we need to embrace narratives that support a sustainable paradigm not the ugliness of slavery and oppression. Current research has shifted in focus to looking at tourism’s impact on climate change (Dubois & Ceron 2006). There is a complicated negative interaction between tourism activities and climate change and thus it is important to estimate tourists’ role in creating greenhouse gas emissions to determine both regional and global mitigation strategies."(Denise Konan)

On the other hand, tourism is a major contributor to climate change because tourism related activities are inherently fossil fuel dependent: air travel, rental cars, bus tours, and other sightseeing transportation. Tourists additionally consume energy indirectly by staying in hotels, eating at restaurants, and even playing golf. While the literature on the impact of climate change on tourism is quite extensive, the literature on tourism’s impact on climate change is less so, probably because of the complexity of the problem and the difficulty in collecting tourism related data. What is clear is Florida's constant opposition to renewable and sustainable energy models over the past decades. Such a mindset is the antithesis of intelligent planning for economic upturn. In 2023 Florida's governor Ron DeSantis signed into law a bill barring state officials from investing public money to promote environmental social and governance goals, and prohibiting ESG bond sales.

The bill is one of the furthest-reaching efforts yet by U.S. governor against sustainable investing efforts, and a clear message from DeSantis, that Florida opposes common sense.

ESG sustainability bonds are issued so proceeds can be used to finance or re-finance a combination of green and social projects or activities. The Seminoles lived mostly in swamps and marshes in a geographic region known today as the Everglades. Everglades National Park is a 1.5-million-acre wetlands preserve on the southern tip of the U.S. state of Florida. Climate change will impact many tourist destinations and tourism related sectors through changes in weather patterns, ocean temperatures and other ecosystem-tourism linkages promoting a war of oppression as part of a cultural heritage is a losing strategy when the demographic change is so apparent and quickly changing. (see Smith et al 2001; Scott et al 2004; Hamilton et al 2005). Currently Dade County is 79% Latino or Hispanic 54% foreign born.


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